Warung Tinggi

Every town in Java (and other Indonesian islands as well) has their own coffee brand. Koffie Aroma from Bandung, Kapal Api from Surabaya, etc, have their own reputation regionally (and in some cases: internationally). Jakarta, as the first site in Indonesia where coffee trees were planted, has its own classical brand: Warung Tinggi.

The story began with a small food stall in Jakarta Kota (now named Jalan Hayam Wuruk), that sold local stuff to the neighbourhood. Each day, a woman visited the shop, carried fresh coffee bean in a basket on her head. The shop owner, Liauw Tek Siong, would buy the beans, traditionally roasted the coffee in a small pan, and sold the coffee. The coffee became famous, and Mr Liauw decided to open a new shop in 1878 to sell only coffee under a new brand: Tek Soen Hoo. This shop was then handed to his son, Liauw Tian Djie. This second Liauw stopped using pan, and started mechanizing the process using a roasting drum. Some years later, in 1938, they designed a logo for the coffee: a picture of a lady who originally sold them the coffee beans.

On Soe Har To’s new order era, the government discouraged the usage of chinese name or brand throughout the country. Liauw chose to change the brand of his coffee. Considering that his shop was famous as the highest food stall on the neighbourhood, he adopted the name Warung Tinggi (high shop) as his new brand.

The third generation took over the business in 1969, under Liauw Tiam Yan. The junior Liauw began packing his beans in aluminium foil instead of brown paper. In 1994, the production outpaced the capacity, and the roasting machines were moved out to Tangerang. In 2001, the Liauw family decided to split into two groups: one to continue with the Warung Tinggi brand, and the other to establish a new brand: Bakoel Koffie. Unfortunately, the Warung Tinggi brand was then sold to another investor. Now the Liauw’s fourth generation continues with the brand Bakoel Koffie.

If we are lucky, we can find both Warung Tinggi dan Bakoel Koffie brand in Jakarta. Sometimes we could also find Warung Tinggi with old package of brown paper, with label “Wartin” on it. It is another Indonesian culture: to make abbreviations of almost everything.

Reference: Gabriella Teggia, A Cup of Java.

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Kapal Api

Go Soe Loet arrived at Java island around the beginning of 20th century from Fujian. Working as a trader, he saw that many people love to drink coffee. So he decided to commence a business in coffee, in 1927. To memorise how he came to Java, he chose ‘steam ship’ as his brand. Kapal Api. Keeping the price down so the people could afford it, he blended his coffee with corn. Note that at that time, coffee has been sold as commodity without brand.

In 1968, Go’s son, Soedomo Mergonoto, began to work as a salesman in his father’s company. Another observation began. He saw an innovation of Unilever. When other companies sold soap in long bars to be sliced off, Unilever began to sell soap in pre-wrapped single-size bar. And more, Unilever advertised its product! When Soedomo took over the company from his father in 1978, he copied the innovation to his coffee product. He made an ad with Paimo (then a famous comedian in East Java) displayed taking a cup of coffee. It made a hit, and sales multiplied overnight. In 3 months, Kapal Api became the largest coffee company in Surabaya.

In 1982, Soedomo purchased a 500 kg/h roasting machine from Germany, assuming it would run 7 hours/day after a few years. Indeed, this machine was running 24 hours/day a year later. And soon, Kapal Api became the largest coffee company in Indonesia. Still, they had no plan to have their own plantation.

However, in 1986 the Indonesian Administration offered Kapal Api to take over an old coffee plantation on Mount Kalosi in Central Sulawesi. In exchange, Kapal Api must carry out the development of the area. Since then, Kapal Api manages all business of coffee: the plantation, roasting, and distribution.

Now Kapal Api operates the largest coffee roasting machine in the world (5 T/hour). Yet, the smaller 500 kg/h machine is still operating. It also has several major brands of coffee in Indonesia (Excelso, Santos, etc), as well as the famous café Excelso. In Sulawesi, Kapal Api has built hundreds of kilometers of roads and 26 bridges.

To many Indonesians, coffee means the steam ship. (Extracted from Gabriella Teggia: A Cup of Java)

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Kopi Jawa

Sebelum mulai dengan Java, kita mulai lagi dengan sejarah kopi. Terdapat sebuah versi lain sejarah kopi yang tidak melibatkan domba. Masih dari Ethiopia, kisah ini hanya dimulai dari Ali al-Shadili yang gemar meminum sari biji kopi untuk membuatnya tetap terjaga demi menjalankan shalat malam. Tak lama, kopi menjadi komoditas yang diekspor ke Eropa, terutama dari daerah Kaffa di Ethiopia. Orang Eropa menamainya mocha. Bijinya tidak boleh diekspor, kecuali sudah dalam keadaan terpanggang, dan tak dapat ditanam lagi. Tapi penyelundup selalu ada. Tak lama, penjajah di nusantara sudah mulai membudidayakan tanaman kopi di Jawa.

Di Jawa, kopi mula2 ditanam di sekitaran Jayakarta, meluas ke Jawa Barat, dan kemudian lebih diperluas ke Jawa Timur, serta kemudian ke luar Jawa. Varietasnya arabika. Sebuah pameran yang digelar di AS (dengan dana yang cukup besar, ditanggung industri kopi Jawa) membuat publik Amerika mulai mengenal kopi dan menjuluki minuman ini sebagai Java. Nusantara, khususnya Jawa, menjadi pengekspor kopi terbesar dan terbaik di dunia. Malangnya, terjadi wabah di tahun 1880an, yang memusnahkan kopi arabika yang ditanam di bawah ketinggian 1km dpl, dari Shri Lanka hingga Timor. Brasil dan Colombia mengambil alih peran sebagai eksportir kopi arabika terbesar, sampai kini. Sementara itu, varietas kopi di sebagian besar Jawa diganti dengan liberika. Tapi tak lama, wabah yang serupa memusnahkan varietas ini juga, sehingga akhirnya 90% kopi di Jawa diganti dengan varietas robusta, kecuali di tempat yang betul2 tinggi.

Setelah para penjajah didepak, kebun2 kopi dinasionalisasi dan/atau diprivatisasi. Adalah PTPN XII (a state-owned company) yang kini mengelola kopi yang disebut sebagai Java Estate. PTPN XII yang mengelola beberapa perkebunan di pegunungan Ijen (Jawa Timur) hingga kini tetap memelihara varietas arabika dengan kualitas amat tinggi. Kebun2nya terletak di Blawan (2500 Ha), Jampit (1500 Ha), Pancoer (400 Ha), dan Kayumas (400 Ha), dengan ketinggian antara 900 hingga 1600 m dpl. Hasil tahunan mencapai sekitar 4 ribu ton biji kopi hijau. 85% biji diekspor sebelum dipanggang. Kalau kebetulan menjenguk Starbucks di Bandung, dan mengamati ada sekantung kopi berlabel Java Estate, nah itulah kopi Jawa yang berkeliling dunia sebelum kembali ke negerinya.

Di dekat kawasan PTPN XII, terdapat juga perkebunan Kawisari dan Sengon, dengan luas 880 Ha, dan ketinggian lebih rendah dibandingkan kebun2 milik PTPN XII. Kopinya 95% robusta, dan sisanya arabika. Hasilnya banyak digunakan untuk industri kopi di sekitar Jawa Timur. Di Jawa Tengah, di kawasan Losari yang dikelilingi tak kurang dari 8 gunung berapi, terdapat juga perkebunan Losari (d/h Karangredjo). Losari dimiliki Gabriella Teggia, warga Italia yang sudah menetap di Indonesia sejak 1965.

Tahun 2003, Gabriella Teggia inilah yang menulis buku A Cup of Java bersama Mark Hanusz. Buku keren ini bercerita tentang sejarah kopi hingga masuk ke Jawa, tentang sejarah kopi di Jawa (termasuk tentang Multatuli dan Max Havelaar-nya), tentang Java Estate (dan menyinggung juga kopi2 keren lainnya: Mandailing Sumatra, Kalosi Toraja, dll), tentang kopi panggangan Jawa (termasuk Kopi Warung Tinggi Jakarta, Kopi Aroma Bandung, Kopi Kapal Api, dll), serta tentang budaya ngopi di Jawa. Di bagian Appendix, buku ini menampik mitos tentang Kopi Luwak.

Starbucks sempat menelepon minggu lalu, menawarkan dua kopi istimewa untuk edisi khusus bulan ini: satu dari Sulawesi, dan satu dari Papua. Sementara menunggu kopi2 rasa nusantara itu (ingat Kopi Kampung), kita nikmati hari ini dengan Kopi Malang.

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RFC 2324

Ada keterkaitan erat antara networker dan kopi. Maka, pada tanggal 1 April 1998, diterbitkanlah RFC 2324, tentang HTCPCP versi 1, dengan kepanjangan Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol. HTCPCP diturunkan dari HTTP, dengan tambahan beberapa metode baru, field baru pada header, dan return code yang baru.

Server HTCPCP diacu dengan prefiks coffee:. namun karena kopi sudah terdistribusi ke seluruh dunia sebelum standar ini diajukan, maka harus disiapkan internasionalisasi skema, dengan bentuk sebagai berikut:


coffee-url  =  coffee-scheme ":" [ "//" host ]
               ["/" pot-designator ] ["?" additions-list ]
coffee-scheme= ( "koffie"                  ; Afrikaans, Dutch
               | "q%C3%A6hv%C3%A6"          ; Azerbaijani
               | "%D9%82%D9%87%D9%88%D8%A9" ; Arabic
               | "akeita"                   ; Basque
               | "koffee"                   ; Bengali
               | "kahva"                    ; Bosnian
               | "kafe"                     ; Bulgarian, Czech
               | "caf%C3%E8"                ; Catalan, French, Galician
               | "%E5%92%96%E5%95%A1"       ; Chinese
               | "kava"                     ; Croatian
               | "k%C3%A1va                 ; Czech
               | "kaffe"                    ; Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
               | "coffee"                   ; English
               | "kafo"                     ; Esperanto
               | "kohv"                     ; Estonian
               | "kahvi"                    ; Finnish
               | "%4Baffee"                 ; German
               | "%CE%BA%CE%B1%CF%86%CE%AD" ; Greek
               | "%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8C%E0%A4%AB%E0%A5%80" ; Hindi
               | "%E3%82%B3%E3%83%BC%E3%83%92%E3%83%BC" ; Japanese
               | "%EC%BB%A4%ED%94%BC"       ; Korean
               | "%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%84%D0%B5" ; Russian
               | "%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%9F" ; Thai
               )
   pot-designator = "pot-" integer  ; for machines with multiple pots
   additions-list = #( addition )

Lebih lanjut, silakan tengok spesifikasi HTCPCP di website IETF.

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